Socio-historical research whose aim was to know the perception of health professionals about AIDS "Prevencion del sida yahoo dating" prevention from to They worked in a reference hospital for infectious and contagious diseases. The data was collected from March to Octoberusing the oral story technique, and the subjects were twenty-three health professionals who looked after people suffering from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome during the above mentioned period.
The content analysis described by Bardin was used and two categories came up: The showed that the health professionals' perception about AIDS prevention was bad due to: Besides thephysical infrastructure, healthcare professionals of the institution began preparing themselves to assist both hospitalized patients, with complications, and to receive suspect cases, families and the population that sought information about the epidemic.
When referring to the history of the AIDS epidemic, it is possible to observe that its development happened in many different ways in relation to the epidemiological patterns, the psychosocial effects, the treatment and particularly in relation to the aspects related to HIV prevention. This is how we seek to present, in this manuscript, a part of the history related to the evolution of AIDS, which health workers experienced in caring for people with this syndrome hospitalized in the HNR, especially with regard to perceptions of professionals in relation to AIDS prevention during the epidemic.
In this sense, the objective established for this study was to learn the perception of health workers from a hospital,which is a center of excellence in communicable diseases, regarding the prevention of the AIDS epidemic, from to Socio-historical research with a qualitative approach, Prevencion del sida yahoo dating which the oral history OH technique was used as a method of source for data collection.
This type of research consists in a systematic collection of data that are related to past events, with the aim to shed light on the past so that it can clarify the present, also enabling the perception of future issues. The selection of individuals to participate in the research was initiated with a request made to the Human Resources of the HNR and a recommendation made by the workers who had already been interviewed.
All interviews were scheduled in advance, in accordance with the subjects' availability, respecting the place, date and time suggested by them.
Besides the hospital, some interviews took place in the homes of the subjects, and others in their current workplace.
After the process of data collection, data were transcribed in order to preserve the reliability of the statements. In this stage, we tried to identify structures of relevance and to make a regrouping by themes, according to Bardin's content analysis, 5 in which the following categories emerged: These categories addressed the perception of healthcare workers about the prevention of AIDS throughout the epidemic.
The results of this research are presented in two discursive groups, allowing the reader to envision the course of data analysis, seeking to understand the perception of healthcare workers about the prevention of the AIDS epidemic during the study period.
In this category, the health workers mentioned the importance
Prevencion del sida yahoo dating the need to adopt preventive strategies to decrease transmission of HIV, especially geared to Injection Drug Users IDUshomosexuals, prostitutes, since these are considered risk groups in the beginning of the epidemic.
However, unfortunately, throughout the history of AIDS, prevention efforts have apparently been forgotten Prevencion del sida yahoo dating the media, by the health professionals, as shown by the testimony:.
AIDS was growing strong, many cases were arising, especially with young homosexuals, injection drug users It was an absurd to talk about AIDS without talking about prevention [ At the beginning, the main focus was on prevention for drug users, homosexuals, but after a while they began to raise awareness, to conduct prevention activities also to married women, young people And we invested in prevention in a frequent manner and not just on specific dates [ The reports demonstrate the concern of health workers from the HNR regarding the measures for preventing the transmission of HIV among the population throughout the epidemic, during the study period, and in the beginning, these preventive actions were done mainly for the "risk groups" and later they were extended to other population groups, understanding that the epidemic was not confined only to certain social groups, but to behaviors that determined a higher risk and therefore higher vulnerability to HIV transmission.
Within the scope of the disease, which is understood as a dynamic and multicausal process, the notions of risk and vulnerability assume a contextualized view about the illness process, constituting circumstances and probabilities of occurrence of a certain damage.
The notion of risk behavior was a major Prevencion del sida yahoo dating to the extent that it led to solidarity of socially excluded groups, recognition of society as vulnerable to infection and to the search for preventive behaviors rather than prescriptive ones.
The notion of vulnerability withdrew the prevention from the individual level only and placed it with the political, economic, social and cultural complexity, where people are found. With further reflection on the occurrence of risk situations and behaviors, studies confirmed that these are under a situation of broader vulnerability, determined not only by individual actions. However, the exceptionality of the epidemic was being gradually attenuated to the point that these actions were being neglected by the government, militants, even by health workers, who besides assisting and caring, had a commitment and a responsibility
Prevencion del sida yahoo dating educate and prevent.
This fact deserves attention, because from the moment that the category of sexual transmission came to be considered the main way of transmitting HIV, the profile of the epidemic changed, and in that perspective it was correct and necessary to invest in planned and continuous prevention strategies that could reach all people, regardless of their sexual orientation.
Given that, in relation to AIDS, everyone is vulnerable, the notion about risk groups becomes obsolete, and what really determines the chance of infection to occur are the behaviors, attitudes and the lack of prevention strategies against the epidemic.
In this sense, the health professional had to commit to investing broadly in preventive actions to everyone, given that the attribution of characteristics such as promiscuous or "not normal" to individuals were the major misconceptions that health workers, concerned with AIDS prevention, should avoid.
In this category, the perception of healthcare workers about the prevention of AIDS, throughout the epidemic, was in the aggravating conduct of some people Prevencion del sida yahoo dating chose not to use condoms during sexual intercourse. According to statements, "Prevencion del sida yahoo dating" trivialization about condom use was associated with the chronic nature of AIDS, starting with the antiretroviral treatment ARVwhich in turn increased the survival of the person with the virus, and with the fact that some individuals had not experienced the stigma and discrimination in relation to the AIDS in the rise of the epidemic.
Moreover, from the viewpoint of health workers, the non-use of condoms by the population was also associated with the culture of male chauvinism, with the feelings of invulnerability, as well as with the fact that sex is linked to pleasure, passion, physical attraction, involving feelings that reverberated in unsafe sex.
People began not to take care of themselves, not using condoms, health professionals began not to adhere to protective measures during care. At first, there was great fear and after with the treatment, with the characterization of AIDS as a chronic disease, people started to get used, relaxing, trivializing HIV transmission E1.
The fact that AIDS became a treatable illness, and was considered a chronic disease, caused people to minimize their preventive care [ With regard to the non-use of condoms associated with the chronic nature of AIDS, in consequence to the access to antiretroviral therapy in the mids, and with the law 9. The indifference of people in relation to the use of condoms during sexual intercourse due to drug developments and the availability of high power antiretroviral therapy free of charge to people affected by the disease caused noticeable impact on the reality of the epidemic, since it reduced morbidity and mortality and the number of hospitalizations and increased the survival of patients who now live longer and Prevencion del sida yahoo dating. There is no doubt that the policy of universal access to treatment increased the survival and improved the quality of life of people living with HIV, establishing a profile of chronicity to AIDS.
In the national and international literature the term serodiscordant is broadly used to describe heterosexual or homosexual couples in which one partner is HIV positive and the other is not. When I assisted these couples, the person who had the virus used to say: If I get it, there is medication' M4.
With the chronicity of AIDS, the reality of those who lived with the disease was gradually being changed, creating new challenges for their understanding and coping, including by health professionals who provided treatment to peoplewho were HIV positive and their partners who were HIV negative.
One of the questions raised by this reality concerns the actions of health professionals in interrupting the chain of transmission of HIV, working specifically on prevention strategies, jointly with the services and health policies.
In regard to serodiscordant couples, there are unique factors that distinguish and justify a differentiated assistance, which requires greater visibility among Prevencion del sida yahoo dating health professionals, and calls attention for better understanding, given the range of challenges related to the maintenance of emotional-sexual life and the coping of the sexual prevention of
Prevencion del sida yahoo dating.
Prevencion del sida yahoo dating with respect to the failure to use condoms during sexual intercourse, health workers made the presence of such risk behavior among young people quite evident in their statements.
People, especially young people, did not take care of themselves, did not care about condoms. We could see this through these girls who became pregnant all the time. With the opportunity of treatment and survival of patients with HIV, young people were careless, not using condoms. I think because they had not experienced the onset of AIDS and had no dimension of the losses with the deaths due to lack of treatment, all that discrimination [ The statements remarkably showwhat AIDS, for being a new and devastating disease in which the real form of transmission was unknown, caused to the population at that time, such as rejection, stigma and fear.
Nevertheless, being initially linked to homosexuality and promiscuity, the perception of the society, including health workers and HIV positive people and their families, with respect to the disease often presented discrimination, prejudice and stigma. Such attitudes constituted a challenging aspect for people with the disease who
Prevencion del sida yahoo dating to experience different confrontations after facing the diagnosis. The omission of the diagnosis is often extended to the families, because of fear about how the family will react and face the new situation, but also because of fear rejection and discrimination by their relatives.
In face of such situation experienced at that time, an incessant search for knowledge about AIDS and the demystification of the disease to the population was became necessary. Therefore, despite the implementation of public policies, mainly aimed at the prevention of STDs among the youth audience, they mostly did not experience the drama at the beginning of the epidemic, the stigma for those infected and the experience of prejudice directed at people with the disease.
Regarding the feeling of invulnerability, such subcategory was also identified by health workers as being crucial not to use condoms, as evidenced by thesestatements:. A different group of people, especially married women, began being admitted to Nereus [ So it was difficult to make people understand the importance of using condoms in any sexual intercourse, even with a regular partner [ The statements show that homosexuals and IDUs started, after this awareness work, to adopt preventive measures more frequently than other population groups, such as the use of condoms during sex and not sharing contaminated needles.
On the other hand, heterosexuals, who considered themselves invulnerable to HIV transmission, ended up exposing themselves to risk conducts and behaviors. Condom use adherence among homosexuals was given to the fact that gay sexuality is, unlike heterosexual sexuality, less tied to the rigidity of male and female roles, culturally defined in gender relations, which made them more receptive and able to adopt safer sexual practices.
In contrast, heterosexuals hada representation of immunity to infection, and thus maintained their same codes of sexual behavior, Prevencion del sida yahoo dating involved vaginal sex as the prevalent practice, in which each woman negotiated safer sex, from their position of greater or lesser power.
Unfortunately, the culture of male chauvinism, the subordination of women in gender relations, arising from the symbolic constructions of masculinity and femininity, the sense of invulnerability to HIV transmission, as well as the fidelity expected in relationships, made women not demand, from their regular partners, condom use.
The alarming increase of AIDS, as well as the significant change in the epidemiological profile, with the heterosexualization of the disease, from the point of view of the health workers, participants in this present study, happened in consequence to the fact that the main way of HIV transmission is sexual, which is linked with pleasure, passion and physical attraction, as evidenced by the statements:.
So people let themselves be "Prevencion del sida yahoo dating" away, be controlled, and involved by the relationship, by the sexual involvement, they end up not using condoms [ But when it involves relationship, sex is difficult to control, even with good guidance on condom use [ Sex is the dominant category of HIV transmission in Brazil, especially among women. It is noteworthy, based on the data presented by the Epidemiological Bulletin of the Ministry of Health, 22 that the HIV infection has shown changes in the profile of people infected.
In the first decades of the epidemic, from to Over the years, the data confirm this changing profile, considering that inexposure category among men was distributed in heterosexual Among women, in this same year,the main category of exposure was heterosexual The main exposure category in the state is heterosexual The first case among women occurred in and, since then, the number of cases among women is growing, and the masculinity ratio has been decreasing every year, from the ratio of 4.
These data shows the heterosexualization of AIDS and also highlight the feminization of the epidemic in Brazil and in the state of Santa Catarina. Sex, especially when imbued with feelings of love and passion, has components that keepthe risk away.
This component arises from the construction of a sense of invulnerability, typical of people in love, who feel absolute, powerful.
Health professionals, as unique beings who also have attitudes, values and differentiated experiences, tried to indicate, guide and provide health care, within the reality presented and according to the epidemiological reality of the time. The "Prevencion del sida yahoo dating" of health professionals revealed several contradictions, taking into consideration that those circumstances were new and unfamiliar to them.
Therefore, the whole process of enlightenment and learning about prevention of this disease was slow.
This study also highlighted the educational and health initiatives developed by professionals who experienced the development of the AIDS epidemic in their working process. Their perceptions are the product of the experience gained over the years, andportray the development of the epidemic, highlighting, in particular, the availability of antiretroviral drugs, and the change in the perspective of AIDS from a lethal to a chronic disease.
This new reality, admittedly positive, reflected in the trivialization of the epidemic felt by these professionals, especially for younger populations that have not experienced the tragedy of AIDS in its rise, bringing consequences "Prevencion del sida yahoo dating" the prevention dis practices.
The limitations in conducting the study correspond to the ones of all investigative processes, the issues of time and number of participants. However, the research presents the contribution that, from the story, told and written, it was possible to document the strengths and weaknesses of health care. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the successful development prevention strategies depends on the collaboration and co-participation of professionals and health service users and managers, as well as the public government.